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Just-in-Time (JIT) Production Explained

A Comprehensive Overview of Just-In-Time Production

Factories keep their shelves stocked with the right materials for production without any clutter by implementing a Just-in-Time (JIT) production approach. But what does JIT mean? Well, this strategy is a key principle of lean manufacturing which focuses on minimizing waste and working efficiently by getting raw materials only when they’re needed. The goal is to provide customers with the best products or services at the right price. Let’s explore the history of JIT, how it works and the pros and cons in detail!

What is Just-In-Time Production?

JIT production is closely linked to lean waste management, which targets the seven wastes identified by Toyota engineer Shigeo Shingo. By making only what’s needed, when it’s needed, and in the right amount, this process reduces inventory, overproduction, and defects. It also improves material flow and reduces transportation, unnecessary movement, and overprocessing.

The JIT system works by coordinating production schedules closely with supplier deliveries and expected customer buying patterns. By adopting JIT manufacturing and lean principles, companies can cut production costs and enhance their competitiveness.

The history of JIT manufacturing

The concept of lean management, initially termed the “Toyota Production System” (TPS) emerged during the 1970s in Japan. After World War II, Japanese companies were facing a lack of working capital and were deprived of natural resources, due to which they had to adopt lean business practices into their manufacturing operations.

They focused on optimizing people, plants, and systems to achieve maximum efficiency. This meant involving every individual in the organization, arranging plants and processes for achieving maximum results, and scheduling production to meet demand precisely.

In the lean manufacturing model, there are eight types of waste that companies aim to minimize. Originally, seven of these wastes were identified in the Toyota Production System which focused on the production process itself. When lean methodology spread to the Western World, an eighth waste known as non-utilized talent was recognized which linked to how well management uses their staff.

How Does it Work?

The just-in-time inventory system works by stocking the bare minimum inventory to keep operations running smoothly and efficiently. Businesses order materials and parts exactly when they are required for production, cutting down on storage costs.

However, for just-in-time production to work well, companies need consistent production, top-notch quality, well-functioning machinery, and trustworthy suppliers. In this way, they don’t end up with excess inventory if orders get canceled or aren’t fulfilled.

How is the Just-in-time methodology implemented?

This methodology operates on a pull-based approach, where production is triggered by demand, resulting in improved management of inventory, reduced waste, and enhanced productivity.

To effectively implement JIT inventory management, start by understanding the demand patterns by examining past sales data. Then, make sure to establish open communication and trust with suppliers to ensure smooth material flow.

Use lean manufacturing to reduce waste and make your production more efficient. Utilize inventory management software and automation tools for real-time data and informed decision-making. And don’t forget to plan for unexpected disruptions by having alternative suppliers and maintaining safety stock levels.

Just-in-time Production Requirements

  • Reliable equipment and machines to minimize disruptions.
  • Well-designed work cells to optimize flow and efficiency.
  • Pull production methods that respond to customer demand.
  • Single-piece flow whenever possible to reduce batch sizes.
  • Quality improvements through empowered workers and effective problem-solving.
  • Standardized operations to ensure consistency and predictability.
  • Flow synchronization with customer demand using methods like Heijunka and Yamazumi charts.

What Are The Benefits?

The benefits of Just-In-Time manufacturing include:

Faster Order-to-Payment Timeline

It helps to shorten the time between purchasing raw materials and getting paid by customers, improving cash flow.

Reduced Lean Waste

Helps eliminate excess inventory and overstocking, saving costs and space. With lower production volumes, it’s easier to spot and fix defects, reducing losses.

Improved Quality

With fewer items in stock, it allows you to focus on selling high-quality products that meet or exceed customer expectations which helps build a reputation for excellence and customer satisfaction.

Lead time reductions

It is one of the most notable outcomes of JIT implementations, significantly shortening the time it takes for products to move through the process. Rather than taking weeks or months, JIT often achieves lead times of just hours or a few days.

Simplified Planning with Pull Systems

Reduced planning complexity is achieved through the adoption of simple pull systems like Kanban, which can even extend to suppliers, minimizing the requirement for complex planning.

Are There Any Drawbacks?

While the just-in-time production offers significant cost savings for businesses, it also presents several downsides:

Increased Inventory Costs

Making smaller, more frequent orders on customer’s demand under the production process can be pricier compared to buying in bulk occasionally. This approach can lower the profit gained per sale.

Reliance on Supplier Performance

This manufacturing approach relies heavily on suppliers’ reliability and punctuality, which can be hard to guarantee. Moreover, a sudden rise in raw material prices may pose challenges as orders cannot be delayed for better pricing.

Environmental Impact

The frequent shipping involved can harm the environment by increasing fossil fuel consumption and generating excess packaging waste.

Risk of Inventory Shortages:

To make the production process successful, you need to accurately track sales and predict customer demand. Failing to do so might result in selling products faster than you can restock them, causing inventory shortages.

Disruptions Due to Natural Disasters

Interruptions in the supply chain due to natural disasters can significantly affect business operations. JIT businesses lack excess stock to fall back on which can lead to halted sales during unforeseen events.

Implementation and Management Complexity

Implementing and managing a JIT system requires careful tracking and organization. Manual tracking can be challenging so it is important to take advantage of software solutions. However, integrating new software can be costly and require extensive personnel training.


In a nutshell, the just-in-Time production is an effective approach to minimize lean waste as you’ll have fewer excess products and reduce the risk of unsold inventory. While it requires careful planning and strong supplier relationships, it can yield cost savings, produce high-quality products, and respond quickly to customer demands.  However, before implementing this strategy you must consider your business model to achieve maximum effectiveness.

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